Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal UB AgroSup CNRS


Claudia Carolina UGARTE NANO

Study of the variability of the physical and hydrodynamic properties of a clay soil under the influence of conducts in protection integrated against the adventitious,
Director : Bernard NICOLARDOT,
Co-director : Marjorie UBERTOSI,
Doctoral school : Environment & Health

Study of the variability of the physical and hydrodynamic properties of a clay soil under the influence of conducts in protection integrated against the adventitious.

Integrated weed management (IWM)-based cropping systems are of great interest due to their significant reduction of herbicide inputs by using a complex combination of agricultural techniques. The main objective of our work was to contribute to the environmental dimension of the multi-criteria evaluation of IWM-based cropping systems which were set up since 2000 on the experimental domain of the National Institute for Agronomical Research (INRA) to Bretenière (France). The variability of physical and hydrodynamic soil properties involved in the transfer of water through the vadose zone was studied for the 5 cropping systems present on the experimental site (1 reference cropping system and 4 IWM-based cropping systems). The first section of our study consisted in studying the water retention of the tilled soil layers for the 5 cropping systems. Water retention values were compared between undisturbed and repacked soil samples in order to distinguish the part of the variability due to the intrinsic soil properties from the one induced by the agricultural practices. Our results show that the soil from cropping system without any herbicides, associating high clay content, average organic C content and intensive superficial tillage, may increase soil water retention in the tilled soil layer. The second section carried on the study of the annual and vertical variability of the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, K(h). For this study, 3 IWM-based cropping systems (no-tilled cropping system and moderate to intensive tilled cropping systems) were characterized during 2 or 3 consecutive years and considering 3 depths including the soil tilled layer and the underlying no-tilled layer. The results showed no vertical variability of K(h). However, they highlighted the long-term effect of IWM-based cropping systems on K(h). Finally, the third section studied the soil water dynamics of 2 contrasted IWM-based cropping systems (no-tilled and zero herbicide cropping systems with intensive tillage) by using ,a hydraulic agricultural approach and by the means of the in situ characterization of soil matric potential and the measure of the amounts of water collected with wick lysimeters. This approach allowed the description of the water dynamics during the drainage season, the validation of the wick lysimeters functioning and the calculation of the surface contributing to water flows collected by the wick lysimeters. These promising results will need to be validated during forthcoming campaigns of measurement. All data collected provided constitute a first evaluation of the soil physical and hydraulic functioning of IWM-based cropping systems present on the experimental site. The established database will allow later

vi the pursuit of work by modeling the water transfer and the transport of solutes, pesticides or other pollutants through the vadose zone of these IWM-based cropping systems.