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24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Claudia Carolina UGARTE NANO

Study of the variability of the physical and hydrodynamic properties of a clay soil under the influence of conducts in protection integrated against the adventitious,
Director : Bernard NICOLARDOT,
Co-director : Marjorie UBERTOSI,
Doctoral school : Environment & Health

Study of the variability of the physical and hydrodynamic properties of a clay soil under the influence of conducts in protection integrated against the adventitious.

Integrated weed management (IWM)-based cropping systems are of great interest due to their significant reduction of herbicide inputs by using a complex combination of agricultural techniques. The main objective of our work was to contribute to the environmental dimension of the multi-criteria evaluation of IWM-based cropping systems which were set up since 2000 on the experimental domain of the National Institute for Agronomical Research (INRA) to Bretenière (France). The variability of physical and hydrodynamic soil properties involved in the transfer of water through the vadose zone was studied for the 5 cropping systems present on the experimental site (1 reference cropping system and 4 IWM-based cropping systems). The first section of our study consisted in studying the water retention of the tilled soil layers for the 5 cropping systems. Water retention values were compared between undisturbed and repacked soil samples in order to distinguish the part of the variability due to the intrinsic soil properties from the one induced by the agricultural practices. Our results show that the soil from cropping system without any herbicides, associating high clay content, average organic C content and intensive superficial tillage, may increase soil water retention in the tilled soil layer. The second section carried on the study of the annual and vertical variability of the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, K(h). For this study, 3 IWM-based cropping systems (no-tilled cropping system and moderate to intensive tilled cropping systems) were characterized during 2 or 3 consecutive years and considering 3 depths including the soil tilled layer and the underlying no-tilled layer. The results showed no vertical variability of K(h). However, they highlighted the long-term effect of IWM-based cropping systems on K(h). Finally, the third section studied the soil water dynamics of 2 contrasted IWM-based cropping systems (no-tilled and zero herbicide cropping systems with intensive tillage) by using ,a hydraulic agricultural approach and by the means of the in situ characterization of soil matric potential and the measure of the amounts of water collected with wick lysimeters. This approach allowed the description of the water dynamics during the drainage season, the validation of the wick lysimeters functioning and the calculation of the surface contributing to water flows collected by the wick lysimeters. These promising results will need to be validated during forthcoming campaigns of measurement. All data collected provided constitute a first evaluation of the soil physical and hydraulic functioning of IWM-based cropping systems present on the experimental site. The established database will allow later

vi the pursuit of work by modeling the water transfer and the transport of solutes, pesticides or other pollutants through the vadose zone of these IWM-based cropping systems.