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24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal UB AgroSup CNRS


Dïnia Cartry

Analysis of the taxonomic and functional diversity of fungi associated with branched broomrape, Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel, parasitic plant of winter oilseed rape, Brassica napus (L.)

Defence on the 23 february at 14H in the conférence Room INRAE BFC

Composition of the jury

Mme Prigent-Combaret, Claire          Directrice de recherche, CNRS Lyon                Rapporteuse

Mme Le Corff, Josiane                      Professeur, Agrocampus Ouest-INHP, Angers Rapporteuse

Mme Poulin, Lucie                             Maître de conférences, Université de Nantes       Examinatrice

Mr Wipf, Daniel                                  Professeur, Université de Bourgogne                  Examinateur

Mme Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie          Maître de conférences, Institut Agro, Dijon                Codirectrice de thèse

Mr Steinberg, Christian                      Directeur de recherche, INRAE, Dijon               Directeur de thèse


Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel, the winter rapeseed broomrape Brassica napus L., is a parasitic weed that needs the host plant to grow. The parasitic lifestyle requires a close relationship with the host plant from the earliest stages of development. This weed has caused significant yield losses in oilseed rape crops in France for around thirty years. Conventional methods are not very effective against this parasitic plant. In this context, the objectives of my thesis were to acquire new knowledge relating to the development of P. ramosa interacting with B. napus and the associated microbiomes to identify regulatory mechanisms that could be implemented later for biocontrol compatible with the agro-ecological transition in which our agricultural production system must fit.

A bibliographic review first identified the main known regulatory factors and highlighted the need to focus on the microbiome associated with P. ramosa. The first stages of underground development of this parasitic plant are not only those on which microorganisms have a major role but they are also those that biocontrol must target. This is why a molecular analysis of the fungal diversity of this microbiome was carried out. Concretely, this analysis concerned three fundamentally interconnected microbiomes: that of P. ramosa, that of B. napus and that of the rhizospheric soil, the seat of interactions between all the partners of the pathosystem considered as a holobiont. The fungal microbiomes of P. ramosa and B. napus are built independently from that of the rhizospheric soil, have very different specific richness and are specific to the plant that hosts them. A focus on the genus Fusarium revealed a great specific diversity (21 species and species complexes) associated with P. ramosa, which augurs well for a particular relationship between this fungal genus and this plant species although we didn’t identify the mechanisms. This result nevertheless suggested that the genus Fusarium could harbor species or strains with pathogenic activity against P. ramosa. A Pasteurian analysis confirmed this hypothesis since more than 90% of the isolates obtained (125) from symptomatic P. ramosa are Fusarium belonging to 11 different species. The characterization of the pathogenicity of the isolates revealed that this function is distributed independently of the species within the genus Fusarium but that none of the 99 isolates tested can be considered as the specific pathogen of P. ramosa. The Fusarium community combines different modes of action of varying intensity depending on the strains. The ability to colonize seeds and tissues of P. ramosa, demonstrated by microscopic analysis, is one of the modes of action, in the same way as the inhibition of seed germination or the lethal necrotic activities on tubers and the buds of P. ramosa.

In conclusion, we propose to decipher the mechanisms of the particular interaction between the genus Fusarium and P. ramosa, to develop a bioassay allowing i) to characterize the infectious potential of plots to diagnose the risk of growing a host plant in a given plot and ii) to evaluate the performance of candidate strains for biocontrol. Insofar as the regulation of the development of P. ramosa cannot be ensured by a single strain but could be by a community, we propose to explore the strategy of conservation biocontrol. We also propose to exploit the potential of secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium to identify molecules that can participate in the biological control of conservation.